A Hard Day's Night 
On 1 March 1964, the Beatles recorded three songs in three hours: "I'm Happy Just to Dance with You" for the film, featuring Harrison on lead vocal; a cover of Little Richard's "Long Tall Sally"; and Lennon's "I Call Your Name", which was originally given to Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas the previous year. Mono and stereo mixing was carried out over the following two weeks. The "Can't Buy Me Love" / "You Can't Do That" single was released on 16 March and topped charts worldwide. Taking a break for filming, drummer Ringo Starr coined the phrase "a hard day's night", providing the film with its title. Lennon and McCartney wrote a song based on the title, which was recorded at EMI on 16 April and mixed four days later.
A Hard Day's Night
The supporting cast included Richard Vernon as the "city gent" on the train and Lionel Blair as a featured dancer. There were also various cameos. John Bluthal played a car thief and an uncredited Derek Nimmo appeared as magician Leslie Jackson. David Janson (billed as David Jaxon here) played the small boy met by Ringo on his "walkabout". Rooney Massara, who went on to compete in the 1972 Munich Olympics, was the sculler in the river in the "walkabout" scene by the river at Kew (uncredited). Kenneth Haigh appeared as an advertising executive who mistakes George for a "new phenomenon". David Langton also made a cameo appearance as an actor in the dressing room scene.
The film's title originated from something said by Ringo Starr, who described it this way in an interview with disc jockey Dave Hull in 1964: "We went to do a job, and we'd worked all day and we happened to work all night. I came up still thinking it was day I suppose, and I said, 'It's been a hard day ...' and I looked around and saw it was dark so I said, '... night!' So we came to A Hard Day's Night."
In a 1994 interview for The Beatles Anthology, however, McCartney disagreed with Lennon's recollections, recalling that it was the Beatles, and not Lester, who had come up with the idea of using Starr's verbal misstep: "The title was Ringo's. We'd almost finished making the film, and this fun bit arrived that we'd not known about before, which was naming the film. So we were sitting around at Twickenham studios having a little brain-storming session ... and we said, 'Well, there was something Ringo said the other day.' Ringo would do these little malapropisms, he would say things slightly wrong, like people do, but his were always wonderful, very lyrical ... they were sort of magic even though he was just getting it wrong. And he said after a concert, 'Phew, it's been a hard day's night.'"
Yet another version of events appeared in 1996; producer Walter Shenson said that Lennon had described to him some of Starr's funnier gaffes, including "a hard day's night", whereupon Shenson immediately decided that that was going to be the title of the film.
Musically, the Beatles represented a liberating breakthroughjust when the original rock impetus from the 1950s was growing thin. The filmis wall to wall with great songs, including "I Should Have Known Better," "Can't Buy Me Love," "I Wanna Be Your Man," "All My Loving," "Happy Just to Dance With You," "She Loves You," and others,including the title song, inspired by a remark dropped by Starr and writtenovernight by Lennon and McCartney.
When a film is strikingly original, its influence shapes so manyothers that you sometimes can't see the newness in the first one. Godard's jumpcuts in "Breathless" (1960) turned up in every TV ad. Truffaut'sfreeze frame at the end of "The 400 Blows" (1959) became a cliche.Richard Lester's innovations in "A Hard Day's Night" have becomefamiliar; because the style, the subject and the stars are so suited to oneanother, the movie hasn't become dated. It's filled with the exhilaration offour musicians who were having fun and creating at the top of their form andknew it.
Molecular analysis revealed diel rhythmicity in the metabolic activity of single-celled microbial eukaryotes (protists) within an eddy in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (ca. 100 km NE of station ALOHA). Diel trends among different protistan taxonomic groups reflected distinct nutritional capabilities and temporal niche partitioning. Changes in relative metabolic activities among phototrophs corresponded to the light cycle, generally peaking in mid- to late-afternoon. Metabolic activities of protistan taxa with phagotrophic ability were higher at night, relative to daytime, potentially in response to increased availability of picocyanobacterial prey. Tightly correlated Operational Taxonomic Units throughout the diel cycle implicated the existence of parasitic and mutualistic relationships within the microbial eukaryotic community, underscoring the need to define and include these symbiotic interactions in marine food web descriptions. This study provided a new high-resolution view into the ecologically important interactions among primary producers and consumers that mediate the transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels. Characterizations of the temporal dynamics of protistan activities contribute knowledge for predicting how these microorganisms respond to environmental forcing factors.
Figure 5. Diel trends in relative metabolic activity inferred from changes in mean RNA:DNA ratios among phototrophic/mixotrophic taxonomic groups: (A) dinoflagellates, (B) diatoms, (C) pelagophytes, (D) chlorophytes, and (E) haptophytes. For each time point, the average RNA:DNA ratio for OTUs within the same taxonomic group was calculated to better illustrate relative changes throughout the course of a day (circles). Shading surrounding each line represents the standard mean error of the RNA:DNA ratios for OTUs assigned to each taxonomic group. Total number of OTUs included for analysis and a summary of the OTUs found to have significant diel periodicity are reported in Table 1. Gray shaded regions indicate the dark cycle (night period). To better represent the cyclical nature of the study, 6 a.m. was plotted twice.
Figure 6. Diel trends in relative metabolic activity inferred from changes in mean RNA:DNA ratios among non-phototrophic taxonomic groups: (A) ciliates, (B) MArine STramenopiles (MAST), (C) Syndiniales, and rhizarian groups, (D) acantharia and (E) radiolaria. For each time point, the average RNA:DNA ratio for OTUs within the same taxonomic group was calculated to better illustrate relative changes throughout the course of a day (circles). Shading surrounding each line represents the standard mean error of the RNA:DNA ratios for OTUs assigned to each taxonomic group. Total number of OTUs included for analysis and a summary of the OTUs found to have significant diel periodicity are reported in Table 1. Gray shaded regions indicate the dark cycle (night period). To better represent the cyclical nature of the study, 6 a.m. was plotted twice.
"We often could rely on Ringo for titles cos Ringo had this happy knack of getting things wrong - little malapropisms - and it was always better than the real one. Someone said to him, you know, you look a bit tired today. He said, 'Yeah, I've had a hard day's night, you know'. He meant it, and we all went, 'Hard Day's Night, that's great!'"
Now married to property developer Rod Weston, Boyd has written two books, "Wonderful Tonight" and most recently, "My Life in Pictures," She appreciates not being able to "fully realize how unique your position is at the time." She explains that reporters would constantly ask the Beatles how long they would last, and none of them genuinely had any idea.
This film, directed by Richard Lester, was shot over two Sundays in 1959 for a cost of about seventy pounds. Nominated for an Oscar for best live-action short, it features Lester, Spike Milligan, Peter Sellers, Graham Stark, and Bruce Lacey.
This piece was written and produced by critic and filmmaker David Cairns in 2014. Narrated by actor Rita Tushingham, it looks at the influences on and impact of the early work of director Richard Lester.
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that are influential in global geochemistry and are promising candidates for industrial applications. Because the livelihood of cyanobacteria is directly dependent upon light, a comprehensive understanding of metabolism in these organisms requires taking into account the effects of day-night transitions and circadian regulation. These events synchronize intracellular processes with the solar day. Accordingly, metabolism is controlled and structured differently in cyanobacteria than in heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, the approaches applied to engineering heterotrophic bacteria will need to be revised for the cyanobacterial chassis. Here, we summarize important findings related to diurnal metabolism in cyanobacteria and present open questions in the field.
In 1964 the biggest band on the planet made their big screen debut with this groundbreaking film that presented a 'typical' day in the life of The Fab Four. Directed by Richard Lester whose innovative techniques paved the way for generations of music videos, the film's frenetic mix of comic escapades, legendary one-liners and pop perfection captured a moment in time that defined a generation.
Behavioral evidence supports the hypothesis that some level of illumination is necessary for A. dorsata foragers to be nocturnally active. Reports show that worker bees can actively forage throughout the night if the moon is at least half full [11, 16]. Furthermore, in cities, A. dorsata may be capable of flying using artificial sky glow from city lights even when the moon is below the horizon . The nocturnal foraging behavior of A. dorsata might therefore be an example of positive light effects on activity, where the light available from the moon or artificial lights stimulate activity at a time the species would not otherwise be active . Regardless, this ability to be active during bright daylight hours as well as dim nighttime hours is impressive, as light intensity decreases by a factor of one million between a sunny day to a full moon night and is therefore even lower on nights when the moon is not full . 041b061a72