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3.1.1 staggered and specific labor cost of spool fabrication: the total labor cost for fabricating the spools is obtained as \$13,225.24 and the specific labor cost is \$10,665.07. for spool 1, the specific labor cost reaches 67.41% of the total labor cost. for spool 2, the specific labor cost is 63.77% of the total labor cost, and for spool 3, it is 59.78% of the total labor cost.

step 4: determine a schedule for each spool. the aons for the spool fabrication are developed in parallel by using the bpmn modeling tool. the activity sequence diagram shown in fig. 10 is used as the aon model. based on the developed aons, all the available workforce, required raw materials, and technological constraints are identified.

in our work, we use the latest version of computer software, total process scheduling(tops). http://www.topprocessoldatingsplan.com/. it can automatically generate the gantt chart, sequence table and the work breakdown of the project. the sequence table provides the details of when and where each activity and materials are picked up. figure 4 shows the activity sequencing in the project. the horizontal axis represents the time and the vertical axis represents the activity id. each square represents one activity with the duration, start time and material needed (if the activity requires any kind of material) automatically calculated. since there are three activities, we have three squares. the materials are marked with vertical lines. for example, the first square represents welding in the sixth day, the second square represents fitting in the second day, and the third square represents assembling in the first day. the triangle is the starting point of the project (day one), while the diamond points represent the scheduled end point of the project (day 2). each activity is given a work task which is the part of work that is completed in one day. for example, welding in the sixth day is represented by the word weld in the blue box. in this way, the three activities can be represented as three rectangular boxes as shown in fig. 3. the first square represents the first activity, i.e., welding, while the second square represents the second activity, i., fitting. following, assemble the whole pipe spool in the third activity (third square) can be represented as a triangle shape. the triangle represents the start point of the project, and the triangle with a smaller base and a large height represents the end point of the project (day two). following, the triangle is the starting point of the project (day one), while the diamond points represent the scheduled end point of the project (day 2). as shown in fig. 3, this paper will only consider three materials and five activities (only welding activities will be discussed) to produce the assembly of pipe spool. here we use such parameters as: weldable diameter (wd) 7/16 inch(1), schedule 2.0, and material cs (carbon steel). in the following, the welding activities with five kinds of welding materials will be discussed with the corresponding schedule, specification and a sketch of the drawing. 4, there are three activities in this project. the activities are marked with numbers of the activity along the row or column. note that the activities consist of picking up materials, performing work and carrying out cleaning up. 4, the horizontal axis represents the time and the vertical axis represents the activity id. 4, the first square represents welding in the third day, the second square represents fitting in the second day, and the third square represents assembling in the first day. for example, the first square represents welding, while the second square represents fitting.